Monday, October 31, 2011

October in Black History

Each month we'll list daily black history notes for the month.  Here's what happened in October in Black History.

On October 31 in Black History...
In 1945, Educator, Booker T Washington was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans.
In 1899, W.F. Burr patented the railway-switching device, Patent # 636,197
In 1893, football player, William Henry Lewis was named All-American.
In 1896, actor and singer, Ethel Waters was born in Chester, Pennsylvania.  Waters was a blues, jazz and gospel vocalist and actress. She frequently performed jazz, big band, and pop music, on the Broadway stage and in concerts, although she began her career in the 1920s singing blues.
Her best-known recordings includes, "Dinah", "Birmingham Bertha", "Stormy Weather", "Hottentot Potentate", "Am I Blue?", and "Cabin in the Sky", as well as her version of the spiritual "His Eye Is on the Sparrow". Waters was the second African American to be nominated for an Academy Award.
Her recordings, "Am I Blue", "Stormy Weather" and "Dinah", were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, which is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five yrs old, and that have "qualitative or historical significance."

On October 27 in Black History...
In 1924, Ruby Dee was born, Ruby Ann Wallace in Cleveland, Ohio.

On October 25 in Black History...

In 1892, L.F. Brown patented the bridle bit.  1892 Patent No. 484,994

In 1925, biochemist Emmett W. Chappelle was born. From 1950 to 1955 Chapelle served as an instructor of biochemistry at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. From 1955 to 1959, he was a research associate at Stanford University.

In 1958 Chappelle joined the Research Institute in Baltimore, a division of the Martin Marietta Corporation which was famous for designing airplanes and spacecraft. There, Chappelle discovered that even one-celled plants such as algae, which are lightweight and can be transported easily, can convert carbon dioxide to oxygen. This discovery helped to create a safe food supply for astronauts.

Chappelle went to work at Hazelton Laboratories in 1963 as a biochemist. In 1966, he joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, as a research chemist, and later became a remote sensing scientist, studying natural systems to improve environmental management. Chappelle retired from NASA in 2001. . Some of Chappelle's most interesting work was in the area of luminescence, which is light without heat. While designing instruments for the Mars Viking spacecraft, he became interested in bioluminescence, which is warm light produced by living organisms. Chappelle used two chemicals from fireflies which give off light when mixed with ATP (adenosine triphosphate), an energy storage compound found in all living cells. This could provide a method of detecting life on Mars.

Chappelle proved that the number of bacteria in semen can be measured by the amount of light given off by that bacteria. He also showed how satellites can monitor luminescence levels to monitor crops (growth rates, water conditions and harvest timing).  Chappelle has been honored as one of the 100 most distinguished African American scientists of the 20th Century.

On October 24 in Black History...
In 1994, Dorothy Porter Wesley was presented with the Charles Frankel Award from the National Endowment for the Humanities
In 1948,  - Activist Kweisi Mfume was born.  In 1996 Mfume became president of the NAACP.
In 1935, "Mulatto", the first Black-authored (Langston Hughes) play to become a long-run Broadway hit, opens.
In 1964, Zambia proclaimed independence.  The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911. It was renamed to Zambia on the occasion of its independence, in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river (Zambezi may mean "God's river") which flows through the western region of the country.
Zambia ( /ˈzæmbiə/), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north,Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt to the northwest.
Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region of what is now Zambia was reached by the Bantu expansion by ca. the 12th century. After visits by European explorers starting in the 18th century, Zambia became the British colony of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. For most of the colonial period, the country was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, the country declared independence from the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the first head of state. Zambia was governed by Kenneth Kaunda of the socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) from 1964 until 1991. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with UNIP the sole legal political party. From 1991 to 2002, Zambia was governed by president Frederick Chiluba of the social-democraticMovement for Multi-Party Democracy during which the country saw a rise in social-economic growth and increased decentralisation of government. Levy Mwanawasa was the third President of Zambia. He presided over the country from January 2002 until his death in August 2008. He is credited with having initiated a campaign to rid the country of corruption, and increasing standards of living from the levels left by Frederick T.J. Chiluba.
The World Bank in 2010 named Zambia as one of the world's fastest economically reforming countries. The headquarters of COMESA are in the capital Lusaka.

On October 23 in Black History...
In 1940, Edison "Edson" Arantes do Nascimento, best known by his nickname Pelé was born in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, Brazil,. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time. In 1999, he was voted as the Football Player of the Century by the IFFHS International Federation of Football History and Statistics. In the same year French weekly magazine France-Football consulted their former "Ballon D'Or" winners to elect the Football Player of the Century. Pelé came in first position. In 1999 the International Olympic Committee named Pelé the "Athlete of the Century". In his career he scored 760 official goals, 541 in league championships, making him the top scorer of all time. In total Pelé scored 1281 goals in 1363 games.

In his native Brazil, Pelé is hailed as a national hero.He is known for his accomplishments and contributions to the game of football. He is also acknowledged for his vocal support of policies to improve the social conditions of the poor (when he scored his 1,000th goal he dedicated it to the poor children of Brazil). During his career, he became known as "The King of Football" (O Rei do Futebol), "The King Pelé" (O Rei Pelé) or simply "The King" (O Rei).

Spotted by football star Waldemar de Brito, Pelé began playing for Santos at 15 and his national team at 16, and won his first World Cup at 17. Despite numerous offers from European clubs, the economic conditions and Brazilian football regulations at the time benefited Santos, thus enabling them to keep Pelé for almost two decades until 1974. With Pelé within their ranks, Santos reach their zenith by winning the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores, the most prestigious club competition in South American football. Pelé played most of his career as a centre forward. Pelé's technique and natural athleticism have been universally praised and during his playing years he was renowned for his excellent dribbling and passing, his pace, powerful shot, exceptional heading ability, and prolific goalscoring.Since his retirement in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has undertaken various acting roles and commercial ventures. He is currently the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos. He is the all-time leading scorer of the Brazil national football team and is the only footballer to be a part of three World Cup-winning squads.

On October 15 in Black History...
In 1984, Bishop Desmond Tutu, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

On October 6 in Black History...
In 1895, W.D. Davis patented an improved riding saddle.
In 1917, Fannie Lou Hamer was born. Hamer was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader.
She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi Freedom Summer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and later became the Vice-Chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, attending the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in that capacity. Her plain-spoken manner and fervent belief in the Biblical righteousness of her cause gained her a reputation as an electrifying speaker and constant activist of civil

On October 3 in Black History...
In 1956, Nat King Cole became the first black performer (of his star power, that is) to host his own tv show. "For 13 months, I was the Jackie Robinson of television," wrote Nat King Cole in a revealing 1958 article for Ebony magazine. "After a trail-blazing year that shattered all the old bug-a-boos about Negroes on TV, I found myself standing there with the bat on my shoulder. The men who dictate what Americans see and hear didn't want to play ball."  Black hosts had been tried before. Hazel Scott (in 1950) and Billy Daniels (in 1952) had each starred in a short-lived and variety show.
In 1949 - WERD, the first Black-owned radio station, opened in Atlanta. Jesse B. Blayton, Sr., was a pioneer African American radio station entrepreneur. Blayton founded WERD-AM in Atlanta, Georgia on October 3, 1949 making him the first African American to own and operate a radio station in the United States.
In 1941 - Chubby Checker, singer, was born as Ernest Evans, in Philadelphia. Checker was best known for "The Twist" a hit song that soon became a style of dance.

On October 2 in Black History...
Justice Thurgood Marshall
In 1967, Thurgood Marshall was sworn in, and becomes the first Black Supreme Court Justice.
In 1942, Bernice Johnson Reagon was born in Albany, Georgia. She became a vocalist, composer and historian. As an historian, she founded "Sweet Honey in the Rock."
In 1937, Johnny L. Cochran, Jr. was born in Shreveport, Louisiana.
In 1935, Robert H. Lawrence, Jr., was born. He became an astronaut and pilot. He was the first African American selected for space travel.
In 1898 - Otis J. Rene was born.  Otis and his brother Leon established Exclusive and Excelsior Records in the 1930's. By the mid-1940's the brothers will be leading independent record producers whose artists will include Nat "King" Cole, Herb Jeffries, and Johnny Otis.
In 1865, North Carolina amends constitution forbidding slavery.
In 1800, Nat Turner, leader of major slave rebellion, born in Southampton County, Virginia.

On October 1 in Black History...
In 1952, Juanita James was born. She is a writer, who has been coined, "the gatekeeper of prose."
In 1960 - Nigeria was proclaimed independent
In 1962 - James Meredith started school, the first Black student at University of Mississippi... after 3000 federal troops quelled riots over his admission.
In 1991, Dr. Mary Schmidt Campbell, art historian, becomes dean of New York University's Tisch School of the Arts.
In 1966 - Black Panther party founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale.

Check out these sites are where I get many of the daily black history info:

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